Realm of Attention? This book offers convincing evidence and persuasive arguments that Attention belongs to a realm of existence that is unique from and on a par with the Molecular and Subatomic Realms.

Data Stream Dynamics is a mathematical system of dynamics that I developed to deal with a unique phenomenal network associated with Attention. This data base has baffled scientists who employ traditional mathematical systems. This matrix of math and scientific facts defines the components and interactions in the Living Realm of Attention.

Significance? Understanding the rhythmns of Attention enables us to align with natural patterns. This alignment enhances both mental energy and effectiveness, which increases the chances of fulfilling our innate nature.

The following table contains a list of the book's chapters along with links and summaries.

There has been an ongoing debate in the scientific community regarding the nature of living matter. Is it merely an emergent feature of non-living matter? Although the building blocks of living matter may be inanimate atoms, doesn’t Life possess some unique features that set it apart from the explanations that characterize the physical world? This work develops the notion that living systems have a unique relationship with Information that can be characterized by a mathematical language – Data Stream Dynamics. This language opens the door to the Realm of Attention – where Image-making, Attention and Choice are central features.

The mathematical system that defines this realm has scientific significance. It provides a language for a database that has been heretofore inaccessible to traditional mathematics. This system of dynamics also possesses tremendous explanatory power for a range of scientific mysteries in psychology and biology.

The Dynamics of Attention also has behavioral significance. It provides mathematical laws that can assist us to more effectively align with the rhythms of Attention. A better understanding of Attention has the potential to greatly enhance the quality of our existence. In this capacity, it functions as the Mathematics of Mindfulness.

The theory includes the following propositions: Attention employs a single algorithm to impart dynamic Meaning to data streams. The *Living Algorithm* (LA) is the name we have given to this computational tool that transforms Raw Data into useful Information. The LA generates a probabilistic mathematical system that we call *Data Stream Dynamics* (DSD). DSD is the mathematical foundation of our Theory of Attention. Just as both tides and living systems align with the gravitational rhythms of the Sun and Moon, Attention consistently aligns with the mathematical rhythms of DSD. This alignment has significant implications for human behavior.

Mind, Body & Choice: A Fresh Perspective

The prevalent Materialist Perspective holds that all phenomena are a function of Matter, i.e. materially based. In contrast, our common sense tells us that our Mind is engaged in an interactive feedback loop with our Body. It seems that we exert mental energy to change our physical world, for instance moving our arm and hand to reach for, grab and then consume an apple. Our Theory of Attention provides a mathematical foundation for this Common Sense Perspective. According to the theory, Life employs the LA via Attention to impart dynamic meaning to data streams, the informational food of living systems.

Life & Matter: Building Blocks or Interacting Realms?

How do scientists account for the qualitative differences between living and non-living matter regarding their relationship with Information? They claim that Life is merely an emergent feature of Matter. Atoms are the building blocks of cells, hence all life forms. This article exposes the flaws in the building block metaphor and introduces the interactive realms metaphor. Rather than a building block relationship, it is far more instructive to conceptualize Attention as belonging to its own distinct realm of existence.

Attention, Molecular & Subatomic: Interacting Realms of Existence?

According to our theory, Attention belongs to a realm of existence that is distinct from and on a par with the Material Realms, i.e. Molecular and Subatomic. The justification is straightforward. Each realm has its own unique mathematical system that is tied to empirical data. The mathematics reveals the underlying structure of reality in each realm. The 3 realities are mutually exclusive. For instance, space and time are continuous in the Molecular Realm, quantized in the Subatomic Realm, and elastic in the Realm of Attention. Due to these extreme differences, it is more useful to view the Realm of Attention as distinct from the Material Realms, rather than a function of Matter.

Matter's Regular Equations vs. Life's Reflexive Equations:

Why is the traditional mathematics of Matter unable to characterize living behavior? Material mathematics is based in Regular Equations. This type of equation adheres to traditional set theory. Regular Equations, by definition, don't contain feedback loops, as this feature voids set theory. Living behavior is based in interactive, reflexive, feedback loops. Because they don't possess this crucial feature, Matter's regular set-based equations can't effectively model living behavior.

There is a second type of equation that doesn't obey set theory, hence their nickname – disobedient equations. Technically called recursive functions, we refer to them as Reflexive Equations, as they are by definition based in self-referential, feedback loops. As a Reflexive Equation, the Living Algorithm is ideally suited for the task of modeling Life's interactive feedback loops.

__Living Algorithm: Introduction __

The LA's sole purpose is to digest data streams, i.e. transform raw data into a form that is useful to living systems. In contrast to the closed, set-based mathematics of Matter, the LA is both open to external data and based in reflexive, feedback loops. By applying the algorithm to its results, i.e. digested data streams, the LA produces information that would be useful to any living system, for instance the ongoing dynamics and probabilities associated with any data stream, both numerical and relative. These ongoing data streams are the foundation for DSD, the mathematical system that is the heart of our Theory of Attention.

Living Algorithm Logic ≈ Posner's Attention Logic

Is there any evidence that Life employs the LA via Attention to impart Meaning to data streams, the informational food of living systems? Posner's Attention Model has nearly universal acceptance in the scientific community. This article develops the notion that Posner's Attention Model evolved to take advantage of the LA's many talents. (Evolution x Living Algorithm = Posner's Attention Model) This hypothesis has many intriguing implications.

Living Algorithm: Mathematics of Moment

Why do we believe that Life employs the LA via Attention to impart dynamic Meaning to data streams? The LA has many talents that living systems would find appealing. It is simple to use, has minimal memory requirements and weights current data more heavily than past data. It produces many central measures that would be extremely useful. They could be utilized as descriptors, predictors, filters, setting thresholds, as well as providing ongoing correlations between data streams.

Data Stream Dynamics vs. Physics & Probability

Why aren't traditional mathematical systems able to encompass Attention? Are there some inherent limitations that prevent them from being the Mathematics of Living Systems? The article examines the fatal flaws of Physics, Probability, and Computers and illustrates why * Data Stream Dynamics * is ideally suited for this role.

Data Stream Dynamics vs. Calculus

The internal logic of both Calculus and DSD is based upon derivatives, i.e. rates of change. Calculus is the prime mathematical tool of the Material Sciences. Its differential equations are employed to predict the behavior of Matter with great precision. The magnitudes of the changes in Calculus are infinitesimally small as they have no dimension. Because there is no space between the successive points, there is no possibility of Choice. In contrast, DSD seems designed to accommodate the monitor-adjust process of living systems that is inherent to Choice. Further, the LA’s overlay process is ideally suited to generate dynamic meaning from raw data streams. If Calculus is the Mathematics of Matter, then Data Stream Dynamics could be considered the Calculus of Dynamic Meaning.

Data Stream Energy & Attention

The internal logic of Data Stream Energy seems to provide a good model for the internal logic of Attention’s mental energy. A better understanding of DS Energy could lead to a better understanding of mental energy, which could assist us to better fulfill our potentials.

Energy has the ability to change the state of a system. Data Energy has the ability to change the state of Living Algorithm’s (LA) mathematical system. Scientists have found it useful to divide energy into 2 parts, kinetic energy that does work and potential energy that is stored for later use. We have found it useful to employ similar constructs in the LA System, i.e. active (kinetic) and residual (potential) energy.

According to our Theory of Attention, active energy corresponds with the mental urge to accumulate information or experience, while residual energy corresponds with the mental urge to assimilate these experiences. The LA mathematics reveals how these complementary urges guide and dominate our lives on a day-to-day level.

Our Sleep/Awake cycle provides us with a good example. As we accumulate information and experiences during the day, the urge to assimilate (residual energy) rises. When the assimilation urge passes a certain threshold, we go to sleep. During this downtime, i.e. no more information accumulation, the residual energy is converted into active energy, thereby fulfilling the urge to assimilate. Upon waking the residual energy, i.e. the urge to assimilate, is depleted and we are ready for another round of info accumulation.

Open Energy Systems: Body, Car, LA System

The LA generates an open energy system. Does this energy system have anything in common with material energy systems? It seems that the LA's mathematical system shares a similar energy logic with our body, a biological system, and our car, a mechanical system. Each of these systems (biological, mechanical, and mathematical) has the same relationship with energy. A Transformer converts Raw Materials into Energy that powers the System. This energy is consumed, not conserved. Further external fuel is required to replenish energy else the system ceases operating.

Data Energy – Kinetic & Potential: Sleep & Attention Span

The *Living Algorithm * (LA), the mathematical foundation of our *Theory of Attention*, generates a system. This article offers some mathematical derivations regarding the nature of Kinetic and Potential Energy in the LA's system. Each iteration of the LA's process integrates new data into the system. Each new data point can be viewed as a type of energy – deemed Data Energy. When it enters the system, part of the Data Energy is consumed as Kinetic Energy. This energy is employed to change or maintain the state of the system. The remainder of the original Data Energy is stored as Potential Energy. A portion of this Potential Energy is consumed as Kinetic Energy with each iteration of the LA's computational process. After enough iterations, the original Data Energy is completely consumed, at least for all practical purposes. However, if new Data Energy continues to enter the system, the Potential Energy accumulates. The LA’s computational process is unable to keep up. The system requires downtime to completely utilize the accumulating Potential Energy. Mathematical downtime is when the data stream's content equals zero. According to our Theory of Attention, this mathematical process is related to the necessity of Sleep and our limited Attention span.

Information Physics: an Introduction

Information Physics provides a mathematical foundation for a network of hypotheses regarding the interaction between Information and Attention. In so doing, it provides a mathematical language for a realm of existence that is generally ignored by traditional physics. This ‘new’ physics addresses a parallel universe whose ‘content’ and ‘rules’ are entirely different from that of the ‘old’ physics.

Material Physics specializes in the interaction between matter and energy. It describes the dynamics of objects moving through objective space and time. Calculus with its closed and regular (set-based) equations provides the mathematics for Material Physics.

In contrast, Information Physics specializes in the interaction between information and mental energy. It defines the dynamics of information in data streams moving through the subjective space and time of living awareness. Further, an open, recursive equation, the Living Algorithm (LA), provides the mathematics for Information Physics. Through an understanding of the rules that govern Attention, we humans can increase our capacity for Attention, thereby the quality of our existence.

Despite these differences in focus and content, Material and Information Physics employ a similar architecture of dynamics to characterize the flow of respectively matter and information. Information Physics also indicates a process by which the Immaterial Realm could interact with the Material Realm.

A unique Math-Fact Matrix defines each of the three realms of existence. The Facts in each Matrix are scientific ‘facts’, i.e. universally accepted phenomena, models or theories. The mathematical component of each Matrix is an entire system of dynamics, i.e. a physics.

Three factors establish the validity of each Math-Fact Matrix: 1) Explanatory power for a unique phenomenal network; 2) Isometric Logic: employing the known logic of a unique mathematical system of dynamics to understand the unknown logic of a unique phenomenal network; and 3) Redundancy Logic: cross-validation from multiple sources.

Metaphoric Logic: Attention ≈ Data Stream Dynamics

Metaphoric Logic, along with Redundancy Logic and Explanatory Power, are part of the validation network for the Attention Matrix. Metaphoric Logic is the process of employing the logic of a known system to understand the logic of an unknown system. This type of logic provides the foundation of verbal abstractions; exerts a significant influence upon human behavior; and is a powerful technique of science. The web of logical symmetries between Data Stream Dynamics (DSD) and Attention-related phenomena provides strong validation for the Math-Fact Matrix that defines the Realm of Attention. The isometric relationship also indicates that we can employ the mathematical logic of DSD to better understand the logic of Attention.

Attention's Holistic Logic ≠ Matter's Atomistic Logic

In the prior article, we saw that the mathematical logic of DSD is isomorphic with the logic of Attention related phenomena. This relationship indicates that we can employ DSD to better understand Attention.

DS Dynamics Logic ≈ Attention Logic

Perhaps just as important, Material Logic and Attention Logic are inherently incompatible. Why? Matter belongs to an atomistic system, while Attention belongs to a holistic system. Matter’s atomistic systems has a top-down organization, where content is of utmost importance. In contrast, Attention’s holistic system has a bottom-up organization, where contextual relationships are of utmost importance. Pictures reveal the set-based logic of sight – another feature of atomistic logic. Music reveals the process-based logic of sound – another feature of holistic logic. Because of these fundamental differences in their system logic, it is impossible for Material Mathematics to model Attention.

Material Logic ≠ Attention Logic

Information Theory & Redundancy Logic

This article develops two ideas. 1) Information Theory and our Theory of Attention are complementary. Information Theory specializes in the exact transmission of data between machines. To achieve that end, Information is deliberately stripped of meaning. In contrast, the Theory of Attention specializes in how living systems impart dynamic meaning to raw data streams.

2) Redundancy logic, first introduced in the mathematics of Information Theory by Claude Shannon, is the dominant form of logic employed by living systems. Multiple senses provide a prevalent form of redundancy for many life forms. Academia employs at least five forms of redundancy to validate theories. Multiple forms of redundancy logic provide support for our Theory of Attention. Reason combined with evidence from many disciplines, e.g. evolution, biology, and human behavior provide multiple types of cross validation for the theory.

The Pulse & the Flow: Sustained Attention Experiences

What kind of evidence supports these outrageous claims? The Pulse, a mathematical form of Data Stream Dynamics, provides a plausible model for Attention as energy. The mathematical behavior of the Pulse seems to mimic a Creative Session, i.e. distinct duration, rising to a peak, and the harm of interruptions. The same map seems to apply to a wide range of human experiences, i.e. Sustained Attention Experiences (SAEs). The widely studied and experimentally validated Flow Experience seems to fit this category.

Maximizing Attention’s Iteration Rate

Attention's Iteration Rate, the rate at which we digest bytes of information, determines the nature of Time in the *Imaginary Realm*. This rate, hence our experience of time, is variable, elastic and subjective. It also plays a part in our opportunities for choice and the level of our awareness. As such, Attention's iteration rate also affects the quality of our performance. While direct control is unlikely, we can exert indirect control over this process by regulating our emotions. Strong emotions, e.g. tension, seem to slow our natural iteration rate. Deliberately calming these emotions via body alignment, breath control, and mental quietude allows this rate to attain a maximum which also enhances our performance.

The Importance of Exercising Intention’s Mental Muscles

According to our model, humans can shape their behavior via Intention. Intention has two components – non-action and directed action. We liken Intention’s tools to mental muscles due to multiple logical symmetries with physical muscles. For instance, both types of muscles grow stronger with exercise and atrophy if they are not employed regularly. When strong, our mental muscles can restrict outdated behavioral patterns and create more appropriate ones. Just like physical exercise, this intentional shaping process requires regular repetitions as behavior patterns manifest physically as neural meta-structures (Nemes). Perhaps of equal importance, regular exercise of our mental muscles increases our propensity for intentional behavior. Rather than being victims of our behavioral momentum, we can take better control of our thoughts and actions. With strong mental muscles, we have a better chance of fulfilling our innate nature, i.e. our inner potentials.

** Scientific Manifesto **consists of a collection of articles that challenge the Materialist paradigm from a historical perspective. Significant features of the universe's non-material component, e.g. beauty, religious beliefs, and innate nature, provided the inspiration for the founders of modern science, i.e. Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton. Scientism emerged from the Materialist paradigm. Rather than a logical imperative, scientism is a faith based belief system that provides little explanatory power regarding the features that make Life special. Due to the inadequacies of the outdated, old, stale Materialist paradigm, Life calls for a fresh paradigm.