# Information Dynamics Glossary: N>T

Glossary N>T: definitions, descriptions and links of the diverse variety of terms employed throughout the multiple articles devoted to our Information Digestion Model.

### Nap phenomenon

Scientific studies have demonstrated that naps of variable duration can improve cognitive performance. In this sense, it could be said that naps refresh our ability to think. This is the empirical meaning of the Nap Phenomenon.

Data Stream Dynamics provides a mathematical model that behaves in similar fashion. The Triple Pulse's Rest Pulse refreshes the potentials of the subsequent Active Pulse. In this manner, there is a distinct pattern of correspondence between the mathematical behavior of the Triple Pulse and the empirical evidence regarding naps. This correspondence constitutes the general meaning of the Nap Phenomenon.

As such, the Nap Phenomenon refers to both the empirical event and the correspondence with the mathematical model. For a more detailed analysis, check out The Triple Pulse & the Importance of Naps.

The Nap Phenomenon is just one of many phenomena that exhibit significant patterns of correspondence with Data Stream Dynamics. The Information Digestion Model was developed to make sense of these mathematical correspondences with multiple features of empirical reality. To understand why this Math/Data Matrix 'forced' us to make certain assumptions, read Core Postulates.

### Non-Material Realm

A mathematical Realm of Existenceß that is exclusive to living systems. The mathematics of Data Stream Dynamics reveals the rules that govern Attention, a significant component of this realm.

The Non-Material Realm has many features, e.g. Intention, Attention, Feelings, Choice and Imagery, that distinguish it from the other realms of existence, i.e. the Molecular & Subatomic Realms. Depending upon the highlighted perspective, the Non-Material Realm might also be called the Realm of Attention, the Intention Realm, or the Imaginary Realm. They are one and the same.

According to the Interacting Realms Paradigm of Lehman's Attention Theory, the interaction between the Material and Non-Material Realms generates the Living Realm of existence.

Material Realm x Non-Material Realm = Living Realm

For a more in-depth discussion of these topics, read the article: Attention & Matter: Interacting Realms of Existence?

### normal science/scientists

Thomas Kuhn in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolution makes a strong case for the idea that 'normal' science is concerned with the business of problem solving as it relates to the particular scientific paradigm. Our educational system is the primary cause of this orientation. Apprentices spend many years, even decades, in school learning the paradigm of the discipline, its areas of research, and the conventions of communication. Only then do they become a credentialed scientist, at which time they become qualified to refine the current paradigm. Rarely does this process lead to a new paradigm. Only in times of crisis does it lead to paradigm shifts. As such the normal endeavor of scientists is to refine and extend paradigms - not create new ones.

### orthogonal

A mathematical term referring to perpendicular dimensions. These dimensions only intersect and interact along a single line - an infinitesimal amount of their entire surface area. Similarly physics and psychology only interact to influence behavior within a limited zone. Otherwise they are independent of each other - with their own laws and principles.

According the Information Dynamics theory, Matter and Life also occupy orthogonal planes. Due to this orthogonal relationship, Information Dynamics is independent of the physical and psychological realms, while simultaneously interacting with these other disciplines.

If the theory is correct, organisms require some kind of Attention to the constant flow of environmental information in order to survive. Attention provides Life with a dynamic nature. Attention and Matter also occupy orthogonal planes. Their interactive intersection is Dynamics, as both employ the same architecture of Newtonian constructs. This idea is developed in the article stream called Data Stream Dynamics.

A conceptual model for understanding and testing the nature of reality. Re: Science – a metaphor for organizing research in a particular discipline. This is a challenging word to comprehend but essential, if one is to understand the underlying nature of science.

Let us come to better understanding of the notion of paradigm through a traditional example. Benjamin Franklin’s paradigm for electricity shaped the research of a generation of scientists. Franklin's paradigm then morphed into Maxwell’s paradigm for electromagnetism, which shaped the research of a subsequent generation of scientists. The paradigm for quantum electro-dynamics developed by Feynmann supplanted Maxwell’s paradigm for a modern generation of scientists. Maxwell’s paradigm is still employed in appropriate situations.

An impelling paradigm for a significant sector of the populace, especially the intelligentsia, is that the Universe is entirely composed of matter. This construct organizes and focuses scientific research into a quest for material answers to all questions. Scientists of this ilk reject as a focus for inquiry anything that resists this materialist approach, for instance our experience of the art of music.

The underlying paradigm of Information Dynamics is decidely different. In addition to a material component, living systems also have an immaterial component, which is based in the digestion of information via the Living Algorithm. According to the theory, this process generates mathematical patterns that influence the behavior of living systems in a significant fashion. Hence, the research into behavior focuses upon mathematical models and their relation to living behavior.

(Note: although paradigms are metaphorical in nature, many believe them to be real. This is due to the human tendency to conflate a metaphorical relationship into reality.)

### patterns of correspondence

The Living Algorithm generates a mathematical system deemed Data Stream Dynamics. The behavior of this mathematical system exhibits many patterns of correspondence with the behavior of living systems. To make sense of these correspondences between mathematics and empirical data, we were forced to make some basic assumptions. These Core Postulates are the foundations of the Information Digestion Model that is a feature the author's Theory of Attention.

Following is a partial list of the phenomena that exhibit a pattern of correspondence with Data Stream Dynamics. Each reference is linked to either an article (blue) that attempts to establish the connection between the Math and the Empirical Evidence or a glossary item (green) that describes the phenomenon and then provides the appropriate article link.

Sleep Deprivation Phenomenon (sleep related to cognitive abilities, i.e. attention)

Sleep Necessity (sleep related behavior)

Nap Phenomenon (sleep related to cognitive abilities, i.e. attention)

Dement's 'Opponent' Process Model of Sleep Biology (sleep biology)

Sleepiness Phenomenon (human attention)

10-minute rule (human attention)

Interruption Phenomenon (human attention)

Posner's Attention Model (human attention and biology)

Timed Repetition & Memory (neurology)

Shifting Attention (drawbacks of)

Divided Attention (drawbacks of)

### Polyverse

Alternate name for the Cosmos. We define Polyverse as a paradoxical (logically inconsistent) whole consisting of multiple logically consistent Realms of Existence. Each realm has its own rules and components and interacts with the other realms. There is the potential, even probability, for logical contradictions to exist between the different realms. (For the details, see Logical Universe or Paradoxical Polyverse? .)

We consider it more instructive to conceptualize the Cosmos as a Polyverse rather than a Universe. Why?

Universe implies one truth, one god, one mathematical system and one material realm of existence. In contrast, Polyverse suggests many truths, many gods, multiple mathematical systems and multiple Realms of Existence rather than just one. The notion of many truths:

1) Neutralizes the urge to find a single unifying force, principle, deity, law that governs everything.

2) Eliminates the need for logical consistency in the whole.

3) Concentrates intention upon finding logical consistency in a single realm.

4) Opens possibility that a single proposition has multiple logical states, rather than just one. For example, a single proposition could be:

a) True in one realm

b) False in a second realm

c) Indeterminate in a third realm

d) Other permutations of true and false in other realms

This logical structure is the potential source of the Buddhist Tetra-lemma and/or the Zen koan. In both cases, the logical paradox is frequently, but not always, due to comparing a single proposition from the context of different realms of existence.

The Mobius Strip provides a plausible visualization.

1) The parts (slices of strip) are logically consistent: definitive top and bottom.

2) The whole (entire strip) is paradoxical with no definitive top/bottom.

In this case, the truth of the proposition depends upon the definition of top and bottom. Depending upon definition, a surface could be either/or, both/and, or neither/nor with respect to the label of top or bottom?

What is the significance of a paradoxical Polyverse? Space and time have mutually exclusive characteristics in the three mathematical realms of existence. They are elastic and iterative in the Attention Realm; continuous in the Molecular Realm; and quantized in the Subatomic Realm. Those holding the notion of a single logical either/or Universe struggle with these logical 'contradictions'. In contrast, the notion of an interactive Polyverse is easily able to encompass these supposedly contradictory 'truths' from the three realms. In such a way, the interactive Polyverse acts as a logical justification for Lehman's Theory of Attention.

### The Posner Attention Phenomenon

The Posner Attention Model has achieved widespread acceptance in the scientific community. It is based upon 3 fully integrated cognitive networks: 1) Alerting, 2) Orienting, and 3) Executive. The scientific literature establishing a neurological connection between brain function and attention would fill volumes. In other words, this experimentally-verified model links attention and biology.

A huge feature of the Attention Model is the alternation between two types of attention, i.e. general and specific. Posner's Intrinsic Awareness is the scientific name for General Attention, while Posner's Phase Alertness is the scientific name for Specific Attention. Although the mechanisms behind the model are well established, the scientific community does not know what attention is or how the shift occurs. This is the individual empirical meaning of the Posner Attention Phenomenon.

Information Dynamics provides a plausible explanation for the mystery. The Living Algorithm computes the rates of change, the deriviatives. These derivatives are the heart of the mathematics of Info-Dynamics.

One of the mathematical features of the Living Algorithm is the Decay Factor. If living systems do indeed employ the Living Algorithm to provide meaning to information flows, then it is conceivable that life forms could evolve to take advantage of the unique abilities of the Decay Factor. By regulating the Decay Factor, Life could shift rapidly between gneral and specific attention.

This distinct pattern of correspondence between the potentials of the Living Algorithm's Decay Factor and questions regarding Posner's model constitutes the general meaning of the Posner Attention phenomenon. As such, the Posner Attention phenomenon symbolizes two levels simultaneously: the individual empirical event and the general linkage between the mathematical and the empirical. For a more detailed analysis, check out Posner's Attention Model & the Decay Factor.

The Information Digestion Model was developed to make sense of the many patterns of correspondence between the mathematics of Information Dynamics and many features of empirical reality, including the Posner Attention phenomenon. To understand why the Math/Data synergy 'forced' us to make certain assumptions, read Core Postulates.

### 'practical' one, zero, limit, infinitesimal, …

Due to the mathematical fact that the Living Algorithm scales data with each successive repetition (iteration), the results are frequently approaching specified limits rather than reaching them. For instance, both the Active Pulse and the Rest Pulse end their respective cycles by approaching zero, but never reaching it. They almost reach zero. They reach 'practical' zero. When employed in this way, 'practical' means 'for all practical purposes'.

### Predictive Cloud

The Predictive Cloud is a particularly significant feature of Information Dynamics. These are the cloud of derivatives (rates of change) that surround each data point - the moment. The most important are the Decaying Average, the Deviation, and the Directional.

As well as characterizing individual moments in the data stream, the Predictive Cloud's metrics/measures are powerful predictors, as well. These predictors provide crucial information about the next data point in the stream: 1) the most probable location, 2) the probable range of variation (like the standard deviation), and 3) the probable direction of the momentum (the recent tendencies).

Due to their ongoing and evolving nature, we refer to trio of measures as a predictive cloud. This feature is extremely useful to living systems on a moment-to-moment level. As such it provides an evolutionary advantage. Related articles include the Living Algorithm System and Evolutionary Potentials.

### proto science

A logical system of thought that has no rigorous empirical evidence to back it up. It is waiting for testing to validate the theories. This is different from a pseudo science, which has been tested repeatedly with no conclusive results. Although there is an abundance of evidence supporting the theories of Information Dynamics, the scientific community has yet to perform rigorous experimentation to test its tenets. As such, it is still a proto science. After testing, it becomes either a pseudo or a real science.

### pseudo science

A logical system of thought that has no rigorous empirical evidence to back it up. As contrasted with a proto science, the scientific community has performed numerous experiments which have failed to support its tenets.

For instance, astrology is based upon an elaborate system of correspondences between time of birth, personality, planetary interactions, and earthly events. Although an uncountable number of books have been written over millenia regarding these connections, it is not considered a science because no experiments executed with repeatable scientific rigor have verified the validity of any of these correspondences. Although this does not disprove astrology, the inconclusive results leave it in the realm of a pseudo science.

Similary until Newton's laws were verified through observation his was but a pseudo science. This holds true for Information Dynamics as well. Until repeatable experiments can be performed which validate specific theories, the logical structure of correspondences remains a proto or pseudo science.

### Realm of Existence

The Interacting Realms Paradigm holds that the Universe/Polyverse consists of multiple interacting Realms of Existence – the Molecular, Subatomic and Attention.

In popular parlance, a realm of existence could have many diverse referents, e.g. the realm of music, sports, or food. In this usage indicated by capitalization, ‘Realm of Existence’ has a more technical meaning. 1) The 3 realms interact. 2) Each realm has a unique mathematical basis. 3) Each type of mathematics employs the same architecture of constructs of traditional Newtonian dynamics, e.g. force. 4) Each realm applies to a unique aspect of existence. These features join the three realms together as a group.

1) Interaction: The Molecular Realm interacts with the Subatomic Realm to generate the Material Realm. The Material Realm interacts with the Attention Realm to generate the Living Realm of existence.

Molecular Realm x Subatomic Realm = Material Realm

Material Realm x Non-Material Realm = Living Realm

2) Unique Mathematical Systems: The Molecular Realm is based in traditional Newtonian Mechanics; the Subatomic Realm in Quantum Physics; and the Attention Realm in Data Stream Dynamics. These ideas are developed in the article – Matter’s Regular Equations vs. Life’s Disobedient Equations.

3) Same Dynamical Architecture of Newtonian Constructs: While based upon different types of mathematics, each realm utilizes the traditional constructs of Newtonian dynamics, e.g. mass, distance, time and force. These ideas are developed in the Notebook – Data Stream Dynamics.

4) Unique Aspect of Existence: the Subatomic Realm deals with the potentiality of the micro world inside the atom, the Molecular Realm with the actuality of our material world, and the Attention Realm with the intentionality of our living world.

The Interacting Realms Paradigm expands the prevalent Material Paradigm, which holds that there is only one realm of existence, i.e. the Material Realm. The Interacting Realms Paradigm provides an abundance of explanatory power regarding Living Behavior. In contrast, the traditional Material Paradigm provides little, if any, insight into certain key features of Living Behavior. The Interacting Realms Paradigm is a crucial component of Lehman's Theory of Attention.

For a more in-depth discussion of these topics, read the article: Attention & Matter: Interacting Realms of Existence?

### Regular & Reflexive Equations

These are two types of equations belonging to mutually exclusive sets. (Regular and Reflexive Equations are also known as respectively: obedient and disobedient equations.)

Regular Equations come in this general form: Y = f(X)

Reflexive Equation come in this general form: XN = f(XN-1)

Regular Equations belong to the set of well-founded functions in mathematical lingo. Well-founded functions (Regular Equations) obey the rules of traditional set theory. This means that the sophisticated mathematical techniques that scientists have developed to make approximations apply to Regular Equations.

A well-founded function also obeys the axiom of regularity. This means that the function doesn’t contain itself. Regular Equations reveal the laws that govern the Material Realm, both Molecular and Subatomic.

Reflexive Equations contain themselves, i.e. self-referential. Because they are self-referential, Reflexive Equations violate the axiom of regularity. This violation indicates that the laws of traditional set theory don’t apply to Reflexive Equations. By extension, the sophisticated mathematical techniques that scientists have developed to make approximations also don’t apply to Reflexive Equations.

The Living Algorithm, the basis of Data Stream Dynamics, is a Reflexive Equation. According to Lehman’s Theory of Attention, Data Stream Dynamics reveals the rules that govern the Living Realm of Attention. This is due to the simple fact that living choice is a reflexive process.

For a more in-depth discussion of this topic, check out the article: Matter’s Regular Equations vs. Life’s Disobedient Equations.

### Rest Pulse

The Rest Pulse is the name of the second pulse of the Triple Pulse. The following graph is a visualization of the Triple Pulse, which contains both the Active Pulse and the Rest Pulse.

The Rest Pulse is the result when the Living Algorithm digests a data stream consisting of an uninterrupted string of 120 zeros after it has digested an equivalent string of ones. The Living Algorithm computes the rates of change (derivatives) of a data stream. The Rest Pulse is a visualization of the data stream's 2nd derivative – the Directional. Experimentation combined with analysis has associated the Rest Pulse with sleep, unconsciousness, and lack of attention.

### scientific 'fact'

Scientific fact refers to a conceptual theory that is widely accepted by the scientific community. For instance, the 10-minute rule and gravity are both scientific facts because they have been confirmed so many times that no one in the scientific community doubts these concepts. Similarly the necessity of sleep and the harm of sleep deprivation on our cognitive performance are also scientific facts. Conceptual models are developed to make sense of the patterns of correspondence between mathematics and scientific fact.

A scientific fact is probably true, but is not necessarily true. Sometimes scientific facts go through transformations. For instance, a widely accepted scientific fact of the 19th century was that light was a wave. Due to contrary results on the microscopic level, the current scientific community considers light to be a photon, a subatomic particle. Due to this possibility of change, scientific facts are time sensitive, not absolute.

As an aside, we suggest that light is instead an information packet. For more on this intriguing perspective, check out Particles as Information Packets.

### scientific 'mystery'

Scientific 'fact' frequently precedes an explanatory theory. When a 'fact' is not linked to a plausible theory, it is frequently called a scientific 'mystery'. For example, scientists consider the 'why' behind sleep to be a 'mystery'. One of the primary quests of the scientific community is solve these mysteries.

### scientism

A faith-based religion derived from Science. As the predominant civil religion of the intelligentisa, it is incredibly influential. Following are some of scientism's significant beliefs. The Universe consists entirely of Matter. As such, Life and Mind are both subsets of Matter. Because the mathematical equations of Physics can precisely define Matter's behavior, Life's behavior is also predetermined. Accordingly, Mind does not have the ability to choose between options. This line of reasoning is at the heart of scientific determinism, a significant subset of scientism.

This logical chain is based upon the fallacy of extending 'many' to 'all'. 'Many' empirical phenomena certainly have a material explanation. It doesn't follow by logical necessity that 'all' phenomena have a material explanation. It is a leap of faith that the scientific community will eventually uncover the material basis for living behavior. Accordingly, the conclusions and the extensions of scientism are based upon faith, not logic.

Indeed there are many fundamental classes of living behavior that have resisted a material explanation, such as the necessity of sleep, religion and advertizing. Information Dynamics hopes to fill in a few of these gaps.

### Sleep Biology Phenomenon (a.k.a. Dement’s ‘opponent process’ model)

Dement’s ‘opponent process’ model provides a widely accepted mechanism for the biology of sleep. Rather than a peaceful transfer of power between our waking and sleep states, the two states are “locked in vicious, biological combat” that engages "legions of brain cells and biochemicals" from every corner of our body. Two biological processes engage in this ongoing combat – 24/7 – day and night. The homeostatic sleep drive (Process S) attempts to put us to sleep. The circadian arousal system (Process C) attempts to keep us awake. The biological armies take turns winning, with neither claiming total victory. According to current understanding, this unusual battle results in the alternation of our waking and sleep states.

The Triple Pulse, one of the mathematical forms of Data Stream Dynamics, exhibits distinct patterns of correspondence with the Dement’s ‘opponent process’ model concerning the biology of sleep. The Triple Pulse consists of a periodic alternation of number strings, which parallel the behavior of Process C and Process S.

However, the underlying logic of the mathematics suggests that the alternation is not a battle between opposing forces, but a cooperative arrangement designed to maximize cognitive potentials. If Process C succeeded in keeping us awake forever, our ability to digest information would stagnate, at least according to the mathematical logic. The alternation of Process C and Process S is necessary to refresh our mental energy, which drives our cognitive performance. For a more detailed analysis, check out The Biology of Sleep & the Triple Pulse.

The Information Digestion Model was developed to make sense of the many patterns of correspondences between the mathematics of Information Dynamics and many features of empirical reality, including the biology of sleep. To understand why the Math/Data synergy 'forced' us to make certain assumptions, read Core Postulates.

### Sleep Deprivation Phenomenon

Scientific studies have demonstrated that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive performance. In this sense it could be said that sleep refreshes our ability to think. This is the individual empirical meaning of the Sleep Deprivation Phenomenon.

Information Dynamics provides a mathematical model that behaves in similar fashion. Interrupting or shortening the Triple Pulse's Rest Pulse diminishes the potentials of the subsequent Active Pulse. This distinct pattern of correspondence between the Triple Pulse's mathematical behavior and the empirical evidence regarding sleep loss constitutes the general meaning of the Sleep Deprivation phenomenon. As such, the Sleep Deprivation phenomenon symbolizes two levels simultaneously: the individual empirical event and the general linkage between the mathematical and the empirical. For a more detailed analysis, check out The Triple Pulse & Sleep Deprivation.

The Information Digestion Model was developed to make sense of the many patterns of correspondence between the mathematics of Information Dynamics and many features of empirical reality, including the sleep deprivation phenomenon. To understand why the Math/Data synergy 'forced' us to make certain assumptions, read Core Postulates.

### Sleep Necessity Phenomenon

Scientific studies have demonstrated that sleep is a human necessity. If we don't sleep, we die. For our entire lives, we alternate between the two states of waking and sleeping. Except in extreme instances, this alternation occurs every day of our lives. It is as if the sleeping state is necessary to refresh our waking state. The scientific community does not know why we need to sleep. It is a scientific 'mystery' that has yet to be solved. This is the individual empirical meaning of the Sleep Necessity Phenomenon.

Information Dynamics provides a mathematical model that behaves in similar fashion. Eliminating the Triple Pulse's Rest Pulse eliminates the subsequent Active Pulse. Put another way, the Active Pulse's very existance depends upon a Rest Pulse.

This distinct pattern of correspondence between the Triple Pulse's mathematical behavior and the empirical evidence regarding the necessity of sleep constitutes the general meaning of the Sleep Necessity phenomenon. As such, the Sleep Necessity phenomenon symbolizes two levels simultaneously: the individual empirical event and the general linkage between the mathematical and the empirical. For a more detailed analysis, check out The Triple Pulse & the Necessity of Sleep.

The Information Digestion Model was developed to make sense of the correspondences between the mathematics of Information Dynamics and many features of empirical reality, including the sleep necessity phenomenon. To understand why the Math/Data synergy 'forced' us to make certain assumptions, read Core Postulates.

### Sleepiness Phenomenon

Normally there is a distinct transition between the states of waking and sleeping. It is called sleepiness. Sleepiness is generally the prelude to sleep.

We have all experienced sleepiness. Tired from a long day, we can barely keep our eyes open long enough to go to bed and sleep. Exhausted from a long drive, we fear that we might fall asleep at the wheel of the car and cause an accident. We don't choose to be sleepy. It rises gradually from unknown sources and frequently culminates in the unconscious state of sleep. This is the individual meaning of the Sleepiness Phenomenon.

What is the cause of sleepiness? The scientific community is mystified.

In the article The Sleepiness Phenomenon, the Decay Factor & Consciousness, we attempt to make sense of this phenomenon from the perspective of Information Dynamics. According to Info Dynamics theory, complex living systems regulate attention from general to specific via the Living Algorithm's Decay Factor. (For support, see the article Posner's Attention Model & the Decay Factor.) Further, mental energy is required to shift from general to specific attention, i.e. lower the Decay Factor.

After the refreshment of sleep, we have an abundance of useable mental energy and can turn the Decay Factor up and down to attune to our environment. Sleepiness is an indication that we no longer have any mental energy available to move the Decay Factor down to attune to a specific level of awareness. In this state, we have a hard time reading or at least concentrating on the material. When tired, drivers become a menace on the road as they no longer have the mental energy to focus attention by lowering the Decay Factor.

When no more mental energy is available to consciously lower the Decay Factor, it automatically rises into the 'eternal' range. No patterns are recognized. Attention flatlines and we go to sleep, i.e. enter the state of unconsciousness.

According to Info Dynamics theory, we experience the state of 'sleepiness' when we can no longer maintain the Decay Factor in the 'sedentary' range required for general attention (Posner's Intrinsic Awareness). This is the general meaning of the Sleepiness Phenomenon.

### soft attention

The transformative power of just paying attention without effort. This idea was articulated very clearly in The Inner Game of Tennis and its outgrowth - The Inner Game of Music. It has to do with allowing the subliminal mind to come up with solutions to problems. For instance, instead of exerting any real effort, we just kept our collective mind lightly focussed on the Interruption Phenomenon and waited patiently for a solution to arise. Finally 8 years later the insight came, which resulted in the unexpected – the Creative Pulse Graph. This same process was employed to discover the solution for quantized behavior. A Fire-Water analysis based in the Chinese five element theory is given in the article Changing Body through Soft Attention or Fire & Water applied to Earth.

### subconscious

We chose the word 'subconscious' to designate the cognitive processes that are not conscious. In other words, they operate below the level of consciousness. To refer to the exact same phenomenon, the cognitive science community employs the words 'unconscious cognition'. In contrast, we employ the word unconsciousness as the oppositie of consciousness. Subconscious cognition goes on whether we are conscious or unconscious.

### Sustained Attention

The ability of complex forms of life to focus consciousness upon a certain topic of interest for an extended length of time. A predator focusing consciousness upon prey to obtain food – the male focusing upon the female of the species for reproductive purposes – the artist focusing upon a painting to produce beauty - or even a mob focusing upon a perceived injustice to wreak revenge – are all examples of this type.

According to Lehman’s Theory of Attention, the Pulse from Data Stream Dynamics reveals the mechanisms behind Sustained Attention. According to the theory, a Pulse of Sustained Attention is required to generate an Experience. Experience lies at the heart of information transfer into the physical structure of the neural networks to generate and stabilize a memory.

### syllogism

"the logical form of an argument consisting of three statements, two premises and a conclusion. The conclusion of a valid syllogism follows logically from the premises and is true if the premises are true." (Desk Encyclopedia)

In the classic writings of Aristotle and his followers, the syllogism was more specifically defined as being of 3 types: categorical, hypothetical, and disjunctive. Furthermore, they only contained 3 elements, which are used in each combination: A=B; A=C; B=C.

Despite this limited notion, Aristotle gave this meta-definition of a syllogism. "A syllogism is a discourse in which, certain things being posited, something else follows from them by necessity." This is the essence of deductive reasoning. Although we will attempt to stick to the two premise form, sometimes we will use the word syllogism to refer to a deductive argument of any length.

On the meta-levels employed in these writings, the syllogism is turned into a logical continuum. By necessity, the logical syllogism is always true. In similar fashion, the pure Correspondence Syllogism is always indeterminate. Bridging the two is the Scientific or Correlation Syllogism.

Although ultimately fallacious, and hence indeterminate, scientists have established conventions to determine the relative truth of the logical statement. The indeterimancy is given a probabilistic reality – with hard sciences requiring 100% for verification and soft sciences happy with correlations in the single digit category.

One of the arguments developed in this paper is that all of the syllogisms employed in the scientific context are ultimately fallacious - specifically the Correspondence Syllogism, of which the Scientific Syllogism is a verifiable subset. This does not mean the conclusions are false, just that they do not follow from the premises by necessity. Although there is no logical foundation for the conclusions of the Scientific Correlation Syllogism, experimental, observational and/or experiential evidence serve as validation. In the scientific context, statements are true some of the time, most of the time, or infrequently, rather than always true or indeterminate. For more on this topic, check out the article The Logical Foundation of Information Dynamics.

### tao

In these articles, the word 'tao' with a lower case 't' will refer to a method, a modality, a way of being. For instance, part of the author's tao is that he writes definitions for his science and posts them on the Internet. Part of your tao is that you read articles on the Internet. This is in no ways a mystical concept or tied to the religion or philosophy of Taoism. It is just the perfect word to express the entire way in which an entity, embodied or disembodied, moves through time. Hair color, weight, or intelligence have nothing to do with a personal tao - unless employed in a process.

The word 'Tao' with a upper case 'T' will refer to the Universal Tao. Lao Tzu wrote about this type of tao in his Tao te Ching. Information Dynamics theory teaches us how to align our personal tao with the Universal Tao by tapping into mathematical patterns that manifest naturally and rhythmically through time.

### technology (behavioral)

Due to it’s utility, we think it appropriate to refer to Information Dynamics as a behavioral technology based in mathematics. Technology refers to something useful. Although the usual connotation is mechanical/material, it can also refer to the non-material as well. For instance examples of a non-material nature include: a political technology, such as democracy – a military technology, such as an archer on horseback - or a business technology, such as mass production. Science has its own non-material technology – sharing incomplete bits of the puzzle with others via articles in scientific journals.

In the present case, Information Dynamics reveals a behavioral technology based in mathematics. A technology is something to be used, rather than thought about. Instead of asking 'Why does the theory works?', a more practical question is: 'How useful is the information?'. A prime significance of the study is its utility. As such, technology is an appropriate descriptor of the nature of Information Dynamics.

The insights derived from these computer-generated graphs are intended to enhance our daily lives by maximizing our potentials. An understanding of the graphs enables us to tune into, rather than struggle against, the natural mathematical rhythms that permeate Life. This is the essence of the practical working 'technology' behind Information Dynamics. Just as it doesn’t take any technical knowledge to operate a computer or a camera, it doesn’t take any technical knowledge to understand and employ the technology behind this perspective.

### 10-minute rule phenomenon

Experiments in cognitive science have revealed that humans have a 10-minute attention span when learning new material. This result is so well established that it is called the 10-minute rule, rather than the 10-minute theory. This is the individual empirical meaning of the 10-minute rule phenomenon.

Information Dynamics provides a mathematical model that behaves in similar fashion. Both the Living Algorithm's Pulse and the 10-minute rule exhibit a 'stubborn timing pattern'. This symmetry between the mathematics and the 10-minute rule is the general meaning of the 10-minute rule phenomenon. As such, the 10-minute rule phenomenon symbolizes two levels simultaneously: the individual empirical event and the general linkage between the mathematical and the empirical. For a more in-depth analysis read the article – 10-minute Rule & the Living Algorithm.

The Information Digestion Model was developed to make sense of the correspondences between the mathematics of Information Dynamics and many features of empirical reality, including the ten-minute rule phenomenon. To understand why the Math/Data synergy 'forced' us to make certain assumptions, read Core Postulates.

### theoretical primitive or ‘primitive notion’

Due to its importance, the following defintion is a direct quote from Wikipedia.

In mathematics, logic, and formal systems, a primitive notion is an undefined concept. In particular, a primitive notion is not defined in terms of previously defined concepts, but is only motivated informally, usually by an appeal to intuition and everyday experience. In an axiomatic theory or other formal system, the role of a primitive notion is analogous to that of axiom. In axiomatic theories, the primitive notions are sometimes said to be "defined" by one or more axioms, but this can be misleading. Formal theories cannot dispense with primitive notions, under pain of infinite regress.

Alfred Tarski explained the role of primitive notions as follows:

When we set out to construct a given discipline, we distinguish, first of all, a certain small group of expressions of this discipline that seem to us to be immediately understandable; the expressions in this group we call PRIMITIVE TERMS or UNDEFINED TERMS, and we employ them without explaining their meanings. At the same time we adopt the principle: not to employ any of the other expressions of the discipline under consideration, unless its meaning has first been determined with the help of primitive terms and of such expressions of the discipline whose meanings have been explained previously. The sentence which determines the meaning of a term in this way is called a DEFINITION,...

In axiomatic set theory the fundamental concept of set is an example of a primitive notion. As Mary Tiles wrote:

[The] 'definition' of 'set' is less a definition than an attempt at explication of something which is being given the status of a primitive, undefined, term.

As evidence, she quotes Felix Hausdorff:

"A set is formed by the grouping together of single objects into a whole. A set is a plurality thought of as a unit."

When an axiomatic system begins with its axioms, the primitive notions may not be explicitly stated. Susan Haak (1978) wrote, "A set of axioms is sometimes said to give an implicit definition of its primitive terms."

An inevitable regress to primitive notions in the theory of knowledge was explained by Gilbert de B. Robinson:

To a non-mathematician it often comes as a surprise that it is impossible to define explicitly all the terms which are used. This is not a superficial problem but lies at the root of all knowledge; it is necessary to begin somewhere, and to make progress one must clearly state those elements and relations which are undefined and those properties which are taken for granted.

### Theory of Attention

A mathematically based theory that was developed to account for multiple patterns of correspondence between Data Stream Dynamics (DSD) and the behavior of living systems, specifically those associated with Attention. (A.k.a. Lehman's Theory of Attention, after the orignator, i.e. me, don lehman jr.)

The theory is based around the hypothesis that living systems employ the Living Algorithm (LA) to provide the dynamic meaning of ongoing data streams. The LA's analytics enable Life to better fulfill potentials. More importantly, it seems that Attention entrains to the natural rhythms of DSD, a mathematical system generated by the LA. Tapping into these innate mathematical processes appears to provide humans with their most pleasurable experiences.

Attention Theory provides a plausible explanation for many classes of experimentally verified behavioral phenomena that have long mystified the scientific community. These include, but are not confined to, the harm of Sleep Deprivation, the Necessity of Sleep, the harm of Interruptions to a productive session, the attention span behind the 10-minute rule, Dement's 'Opponent Process' Model for the Biology of Sleep, and Posner's Attention Model. Neither the sophisticated matter-based theoretical structure of the hard scientists, nor the complex information processing of the computer scientists have been able to provide any insight into these basic and common human behavioral phenomena.

For the complete list of Notebooks associated with the Theory of Attention, check out the Volume List.

See Theory of Attention One Page for more details.

### three affirmations

The three affirmations tend to validate a theory – giving it a greater credence. The theory is then taken to define reality. The three affirmations are as follows. 1) The Theory fulfills the Requirements of the Phenomenon. 2) The Theory extends into unrelated sectors of the Universal flux. 3)The theoretical predictions are experienced. When these 3 conditions are met, humans tend to assume that the underlying constructs of the theory define the nature of reality. Newton's force of Gravity is a good example of this assumption. This is also the argument that is employed to bolster the assumption that the mathematical constructs of the Information Dynamics are an accurate metaphor for the certain features of behavioral reality. (See CP: First Assumptions.)

### Triple Pulse

The Triple Pulse is the name of one of the fundamental mathematical processes (energy patterns) of the Living Algorithm. The Living Algorithm computes the rates of change/derivatives of any data stream. The ideal Triple Pulse is the directed acceleration, i.e. the Directional, of a specific type of data stream. The standard data stream of this variety consists of an uninterrupted string of 120 ones, followed by 120 zeros, and 120 more ones. The following graph is a visualization of the Triple Pulse, which contains both the Active Pulse and the Rest Pulse.

Experimentation combined with analysis have associated the mathematical processes of the Triple Pulse with multiple phenomena – including Sleep Deprivation, the 10-minute rule, and Sleep Biology. The Triple Pulse also represents a powerful method of digesting information. For more on this topic, check out the series of articles comprising the Triple Pulse Notebook.

### triple pulse experiment

The Triple Pulse Experiment explores the patterns of correspondence between the Triple Pulse and many sleep related phenomena. The results are written up in the series of articles comprising the Triple Pulse Notebook.

There exists an abundance of experimental support for the behavioral predictions derived from the Triple Pulse mathematical model. This model applies to and is validated by studies in a diversity of disciplines, including psychology, biology, neurology, information theory and even evolution.