In the prior article, we examined the differences and similarities between Objects and Actions, i.e. their metaphorical relationship. Recall that they both have the same relationship to their respective systems. Both Objects and Actions bind their respective Realms together. Further both can be characterized by Density, Velocity and Momentum. In this sense, their system logic is the same (≈ metaphorically compatible).
System Logic: Actions ≈ Objects
Despite this compatibility with regards their system, the logic of their quantifiable attributes is entirely different. Galileo’s Big 3 (mass, location, and time) characterize Objects. Actions don’t have any of these attributes. The numbers that are employed to quantify Objects are super-precise and virtually permanent. In contrast the numbers that quantify Actions are approximate and transitory. In regard to their attributes and precision of their quantification, Objects and Actions are metaphorically incompatible (≠).
Quantifiable Attributes: Actions ≠ Objects
This section exhibits additional areas where Actions and Objects diverge. In addition to their quantifiable attributes, their existence and behavior are also entirely different (≠ metaphorically incompatible). In this context, we will see that Objects and Actions actually operate/exist in different Realms/Dimensions of Time.
Temporal Dimension, Existence & Behavior: Actions ≠ Objects
Let’s start with existence. What does it mean for something to have a different type of existence? For starters, Objects are all there – an unmitigated or unmodified existence. They are relatively permanent. For example, gold molecules have remained exactly the same since two neutron stars collided billions of years ago.
While Objects are relatively permanent, the existence of Actions is Partial. For instance, Organ practice or Talking only occupies a small fraction of a day. Neither happen/exist when sleeping. In contrast, an unused pencil can exist for decades.
Objects ≈ Complete/Permanent
Actions ≈ Partial/Transitory
In addition to their existence, Objects and Actions are entirely different with regards their behavior associated with Momentum. An Object’s Momentum is permanent, unless altered by an outside Force. This is the essence of Newton’s 2nd law of motion. Further this Momentum is independent.
In contrast to this independence, an Action’s Momentum is dependent upon Events. In contrast to the permanence of an Object’s Momentum, an Action’s Momentum decays, can be replenished and can accumulate. Let’s see how.
First a little review: an Action or Behavior consists of a data stream of Events. For instance, every night before going to bed, Laurie and I watch an hour of TV plus or minus 15 minutes. This TV watching is an Event.
Viewing is the name we give to this Action/Behavior - watching TV. We can quantify these Events with a 1 for existence and a 0 if it doesn’t happen. The series of numbers associated with these TV-watching Events is the data stream of Viewing.
The data stream of Events determines the Momentum of the particular Action/Behavior. Each Event generates an individual Time Momenta that is associated with an Action, say Screen Time. The Action is invested with only a fraction of the Event’s Momenta (the remainder decays). Data Stream Math determines the size of the original investment along with the decay rate of Action’s Momentum.
With each repetition of the Event, the Time Momentum associated with the Action accumulates. Vice versa, if the Event is not repeated in the given time slot, the momentum decays. With enough repetitions, the Action’s momentum approaches 100%. Vice versa, if the Event is not repeated enough in the time slot, the Momentum approaches 0%. Because Laurie and I watch nearly every night, our Viewing momentum is high. If participation is spotty, then the Action’s momentum is much lower.
Rather than a mere curiosity, this analysis is highly significant. Relevance: The Action’s Momenta is correlated with the probability of behavior. The higher the Momenta the greater the probability that the behavior will be repeated. And vice versa.
For instance, let us suppose that my data stream consists of hours of organ practice each day. The Action is Organ Practice. Regular practice (a series of events) results in the accumulation of Time Momenta, which means a greater likelihood of practicing. Conversely, missing or shortening practice sessions simultaneously lowers the Time Density/Momenta – hence lowering the probability of future practice.
Or a more politically charged example: Every act of racism increases the probability of racist action and every act of tolerance increases the probability of tolerant action. Because racist action persisted for centuries, the Time Density-Momenta associated with this intolerable action remains high in certain segments of the population. It will take the persistent intentional reversing of this trend to weaken this momenta.
Summarizing the differences between the Time Momenta of an Object and the Event-based Time Momenta of an Action.
Object’s Time Momentum = Permanent & Independent
Action’s Time Momentum = Decays & Dependent upon Events
However, in both cases the Momentum is highly significant. The Momentum of Objects indicates their inertia energy. The Momentum of Actions is associated with the Probability of Behavior. One indicates a fixed energy, the other indicates a probabilistic energy.
Object’s Time Momentum -> Inertial Energy
Action’s Time Momentum -> Probability of Behavior
This analysis/model indicates that a material Object’s Momentum is inviolable, while a living Action’s Momentum is probabilistic. This simple statement reveals that Matter is deterministic, while Life has the potential for choice.
Matter/Objects = Deterministic
Life/Actions = Probabilistic Choice
In other word, we can become victims of our DS Momentum – allowing past tendencies to dominate our behavior. Or we can be proactive – guiding and shaping our DS Momentum. By repeating positive behavior, we can reverse negative behavioral spirals and reinforce positive behavioral spirals. Understanding the implications of an Action’s DS Momentum enables us to take charge of our lives.
There is yet another difference between Objects and Actions. They exist in distinct dimensions of reality. Objects exist in the well-studied physical reality. Actions along with their data streams only exist in our mental reality. A hydrogen atom ‘really’ exists, as some have existed intact for billions of years (since shortly after the Big Bang). In contrast, Tai Chi along with its data stream only exists as a memory in our mind.
Belonging to physical reality, Objects have an independent, objective existence. Belonging to mental reality, Actions have a dependent, subjective existence. Dependent: because they are dependent upon mental energy for their existence. Subjective: because they are ideational constructs that are created by Mind to organize sensual input into functional models. (Reminder: Actions in this context are the content of the relevant data stream, not movement.)
The two types of reality (physical and mental) exist in different dimensions of time Physical Objects only exist in time’s linear (horizontal) dimension; Actions only exist in time’s cyclical/spiral (vertical) dimension.
Objects -> Linear Time of Physical Reality
Actions -> Cyclical/Spiral Time of Mental Reality
In their respective dimensions, objects and events exist in an entirely different fashion. Objects are completely there – 100% Density, while Actions are only partially there – Partial Density. (These topic are dealt with in detail in another paper ‘51.2 Time’s Two Dimensions’.)
Objects = 100% Density = Linear Time
Actions = Partial Density = Cyclical/Spiral Time
There is yet another significant difference between Matter’s Objects and Mind’s Actions and their respective ‘Sciences’. Because linear time is continuous, Laws govern the physical reality of Objects. Because cyclical time is punctuated, Rules govern the mental reality of Actions. Laws and rules have one basic difference. Laws are inviolable, while Rules can be broken. (Foreshadowing: Rather than a flaw, breakable rules enable living choice. The laws of physical reality merely provide the boundaries for our rule-driven mental reality.)
Because of these mutually exclusive differences, our two polar partners require two different types of mathematics. Specializing in the Complete Density of Matter’s continuous time, Calculus determines the absolute laws of Objects (physical reality). (For more see 41.5 Data Stream Dynamics vs. Calculus.) Specializing in the ongoing discretized Data Streams (DS) of Actions, Data Stream Dynamics determines the breakable rules of Actions (mental reality). Based upon a single iterative algorithm1, DSD is ideally suited to deal with the discretized, cyclical time of Actions. Rather than objective, this Math of DS actually determines the ongoing Partial Densities the Actions of our mental reality.
Summarizing: Objects and Actions belong to different realities that exist in different temporal dimensions that are described by 2 different mathematical systems. In 40.3 Attention, Molecular & Subatomic: Interacting Realms of Existence?, we develop the notion that there is a Realm of Attention that is equivalent to the Material Realms (Molecular and Subatomic). The Attention Realm has all the features associated with Actions. The Molecular Realm has all the features associated with Objects. Significance? Life exists at the intersection of these Realms of Existence. How do these two disparate Realms interact? Read on.
While Objects and Actions belong to different realities with differing temporal dimensions, living systems exist, participate and interact at the intersection of both Realities (physical and mental). In such a way, Life includes both Objects and Actions. Duh!
Our mental reality is purely conceptual/experiential. As such, it could be called a virtual or even an imaginary reality. Despite this lack of substance, this so-called Realm of Attention can exert an effect upon physical reality via Experience.
In brief, Attention invests an Event with a quanta of mental energy (a menton). After sustaining Attention upon a data stream of Events for sufficient Duration, the mental energy accumulates enough to spark the gap between the physical and mental realities to form an Experience/Memory.
Mental Reality consists (solely?) of Experiences. Mind organizes these Experiences into Models of Reality. Mind then employs these Descriptive/Predictive Models to Optimize Existence.
Actions and the Models based upon them inform our existence. Indeed these models are essential for survival – as they increase the odds of making better choices.
This entire process is based upon the method by which we process/digest information. Without this information digestion system, atomistic chemistry-dominated molecular interactions is all there is (just as the bio-scientific community believes). However this Information Digestion System is an integral part of holistic Life. Without it, we and every other living system couldn’t survive as a distinct unit. The ID system provides the basis for choices2 in a dynamic environment.
The ID system, Actions and our mental reality all requires a temporal sense to exist and operate. This temporal sense is conferred by Attention’s IOP. Attention’s same process generates time’s cyclical dimension. Anything that requires a sense of time only exists in this cyclical dimension.
As it is completely real and linear, the temporal dimension of Matter does not require a sense of time to exist. As such, Objects and physical reality only exists in time’s linear dimension.
As they are repetitive, Actions require a temporal sense to be experienced. As such, they exist solely in time’s cyclical dimension.
Only Living systems participate in both realities, physical and mental. Due to this dual participation, only Life exists in spatial time, i.e. the interaction of the linear and cyclical time.
We have spent an entire paper, examining similarities and differences between Objects and Actions. While fulfilling a similar role in their respective systems, they belong to different realities that have differing temporal dimensions that are described by their own mathematical systems. How do Objects and Actions come into being?
First let us generalize Objects and Actions. Specifically, an Action is any repetitive behavior that can be associated with a data stream. My Experiment consists of this type of Action, for instance hours per month of Painting, Meditation, or Interaction. Any of these Actions would be the Content of the Data Stream.
More generally, an Action is a subset of the content associated with any data stream (DS Content). For example, your Mother has a data stream. In fact, you identify her via a complex of data streams, including smell, shapes, colors and especially emotions. In fact, one individual who had lost his capacity for emotions due to a brain injury couldn’t recognize his Mom even when she was right in front in him.
Just as with Actions, DS Content binds the data stream together. Without content, the data stream is just a string of numbers without meaning. DS Content also has ongoing attributes (trajectories), for instance DS Density and Velocity.
As exhibited, Actions are a small part of a much larger picture. Actions are a specific category (a subset) of Data Stream Content; everything that we have said about Actions also applies to DS Content. Similarly, Objects are a subset of Matter’s particles; everything we have said about Objects also applies to Matter.
Actions = subset of DS Content
Objects = subset of Matter’s Particles
While fulfilling similar roles in their respective systems (metaphorically compatible (≈)), we’ve seen that Actions and Objects exist and behave in different ways (metaphorically incompatible (≠)). For instance, Objects have complete Time Density (100%), while Actions have only Partial Density. This analysis also applies more generally to DS Content and Matter. This differing relationship with time means that Material Objects behave predictably, while Living Actions are probabilistic.
Objects = 100% H Time Density = 100% Time Momenta = Certainty of Behavior
Actions = Partial Density = Partial Time Momenta = Probability of Behavior
But how do each come into existence? The answer for Objects/Matter is obvious – the Big Bang3 followed by the material forces, e.g. gravity.
Big Bang -> Matter
What about Actions? More generally, how do Data Streams and their Content come into existence?
While Matter originates with the Big Bang, Data Streams originate with Life. How so?
In my model, Life exists at the intersection of the Material Realms and the Realm of Attention. Put more simply, Life consists of the interaction between Mind and Body4. DS are the result of the interaction of Mind with Body. Body provides the material substrate for Data Streams and their Content; Mind then invests this complex with meaning.
Mind x Body -> Data Streams
Body -> DS + Content
Mind -> Meaning to DS + Content
How does the Body provide both the DS and accompanying content? IMPs, proteins embedded in the cellular membrane, are designed to both match and react to precise environmental stimulus. These proteins remain fixed unless there is a match. If there is a match, the proteins change shapes, which initiates a cascade of changes. This cellular process provides the building blocks of 1) our sensory-motor network, 2) the images that underlie content and 3) the data streams that are the food for Mind. (49.3 IMPs provide Biological Substrate of ID System)
Despite this important function, this entire IMP-generated process is completely mechanistic, it can’t take the entire organism into account. Our ID system serves this function. (Mind is one of four components of our ID Synergy.)
After Body generates the content and the data streams via the atomistic IMPs, our ID system (including Mind) transforms this data into a form that is useful to the holistic organism. The ID system’s holistic perspective is necessary for survival.
The ID System is propelled forward by a Synergy consisting of four components. 1) Feelings (appetites) drive the system (value assignment); 2) Attention provides the sensory-motor network and the holistic perspective; 3) Mind (the Executive) analyzes and chooses between alternatives; and 4) Intention (Will) executes.
After the IMPs generate the signals (the data streams), the Synergy takes over. In contrast to the atomistic chemical reactions that drive our physical Body, the ID Synergy takes the entire organism into account. Reactive Chemistry does not have this capacity.
Although based upon a material substrate, the ID Synergy requires a sense of time to operate. For instance, the simple capacity to recognize food is dependent upon memory. The ID system provides a temporal sense via Attention’s IOP.
Mind employs this IOP to generate models of reality that enable him to better satisfy Feelings (her desires/appetites). Actions (DS Content) are an essential feature of our mental models. For instance, identifying whether a sensory data stream indicates Food or Poison is the difference between living and dying.
As Matter does not possess a sense of time, the whole shebang associated with our ID system is immaterial –part of our mental reality. As such, Mind-generated Actions are virtual and imaginary. Unlike Matter, Actions are not real in anyway.
However, despite their virtual existence, Mind’s models accompanied by Actions enable us to better fulfill our innate nature (our birth Feelings). Because of this role, these imaginary constructs are essential to our well-being and survival.
How important are these mental models? Modern Psychology (or the individuals that make up the discipline) has come to the consensus that humans (and, we suggest, all living systems) primarily employ Models to engage with Reality – not raw sensory input, as most of us tend to believe. For example, we filter our eye’s visual info through our mentals models – seeing what we want to see and blind to anything that doesn’t fit our models.
Like scientists, we are regularly creating, testing and refining Models. Depending upon the results of our personal experiments, we might even supplant a deficient Model with a better Model. Rather than static, these are Living Models in that they are born, develop and die.
It could be said that Living Models are the fundamental units of intelligence, from single cells on up to multi-cellular organisms. The Models are based upon perceived Actions (DS Content + DS Analytics) combined with Inter-Actions (relationships between Actions).
In this sense, Actions (DS Content) and their Derivatives (DS Analytics) are the building blocks of Living Models. Further, Actions et al derive from Data Streams. As building blocks of our Models, DS-derived Actions and their Derivatives, are quite important indeed.
Data Streams (Actions + Derivatives) = Building Blocks of Models
Atomistic IMPs, the building blocks of our entire sensory-motor network, supply the Data Streams (DS). Our holistic ID system digests this information – translating the information into effective behavior. Put another way, our ID system invests IMP-generated DS with meaning and purpose with respect to the entire organism.
Specifically, Feelings attribute value to DSs; Attention invests them with mental energy. Mind gives them meaning by employing them in decision-informing Models, and Intention executes Mind’s decisions5.
IMPs supply the DSs along with their Content. When the membrane-embedded protein’s image is an exact match for a specific environmental signal, the protein changes shape (fires). This match between environmental signal and IMP image is associated with the resultant DS, its Content. In such a way, the IMPs’ preprogrammed images provide the building blocks of all derivative DS Content.
IMP-generated DS Content, whether Raw or Derivative, provides the building blocks of every category that we have. These mental constructs include the Object category and every other category from the physical world, e.g. molecules, electro-magnetism, electrons and photons. In this sense, Matter requires Mind to be experienced.
Without Mind to infuse DS Content with Meaning, the Universe is nothing but a nameless, meaningless Flux – the purposeless, undifferentiated interaction of matter and energy. No information without categories.
IMPs are the only source of environmental information. As such, these IMP-generated data streams are the sole vehicle of interactions with our world. Multi-cellular organisms such as ourselves employ derivatives upon derivatives of these data stream-generated models to monitor and adjust to the dynamic conditions that are inherent to every living system.
In summary, this comparison of Actions and Objects is far-reaching. It extends to Matter and Data Streams with their differing realities, temporal dimensions, and mathematical systems. It also applies to the interaction between Mind and Body. The comparison also differentiates the Science of Matter and my ‘Science’ of Information Digestion. Finally, this analysis exhibits how even our physical reality requires Life’s ID system to be experienced.
1 The Living Algorithm (LA) is the mathematical realization of Attention’s image overlay process (IOP). Deduced from the LA, DS Dynamics is the mathematics of data streams. Life’s ID System employs this DS Math to optimize procedures.
LA = Math of Attention’s IOP
DS Dynamics = ƒ (LA)
I pretend my model is a Science because it includes this DS Math.
2 Lucretius and the Epicureans of ancient Greece were strict materialists. Their writings laid the conceptual foundation for the discovery of atoms and our modern scientific mentality. Due their intellectual honesty, they had to somehow account for the ability of living systems to choose between alternatives to optimize existence. They believed that Life could by some mysterious means introduce what they called a ‘swerve’ into Matter’s determinism – perhaps a slight bending of probabilistic tendencies.
3 Of course, the origination of the Big Bang is not so obvious; in fact it must be attributed to some kind of miracle. Some will say divine, others not. The answer is definitely indeterminate. In other words, whichever works best is right for you. Neither has a 100%truth quotient.
4 My model stands in stark contrast to the absolute isolation of Mind and Body in the Descartian model,
5 How does Intention work? How does immaterial Intention effect a change in the material world? The same way Providence works.
Intention initiates the Swerve by manipulating random probabilities – initiating a ‘possible, yet highly improbable (virtually impossible) Event (maybe one that is 8 Deviations and more from the Norm). These minute changes produce Big Results – perhaps a Black Swan that changes the random course of Destiny – many so called ‘butterfly effects’ that enable us to coordinate all our billions of IMP firings to procure and eat an apple.